WWH: What? Why? How?
- Why: it might empower you to write more robust programs: reusable, shorter, easier to reason about, less prone to error among others.
- How: by providing a quick textual introduction (WWH) followed by a simple code example and when possible a real code example.
Intro :: concepts
What: a way to build code in which you use functions as the main design tool.
Why: might lead to code that’s easier to test, debug, parallelize, and understand.
How: thinking about what programs should do instead of how, using functions as the major unit to solve problems on computer.
First Class Functions
What: “functions are like any other data type and there is nothing particularly special about them – they may be stored in arrays, passed around, assigned to variables.”
Why: use functions to compose programs in a style that you can easily reason about, maintain, reuse and grow.
How: just create and use functions to solve problems.
What: “a function that, given the same input, will always return the same output and does not have any observable side effect.”
Why: with pure functions we can easily cache, debug, test and parallelize the processing of them. There is no state to understand / set up.
How: write functions that does not have side effect. Although we’ll eventually write programs that mutate values, we can certainly try to minimize it. (And when we do need to mutate values, we can use functions to help us)
Basic toolbox :: currying
What: “You can call a function with fewer arguments than it expects. It returns a function that takes the remaining arguments.”
Why: you can promote the reusability to function level, you can use them to compose programs that expects another function
How: build a function with n parameters that returns n functions instead of the immediate result.
Medium toolbox :: composing
What: is the act of creating your programs using lots of functions.
Why: this promotes the reuse at a great level and forces you to think about what instead of how.
How: chain functions to produce a new callable function.
Example :: motivational
What: a better example to motivate you to go further with functional programing.
Why: most near real world examples are great to motivate you to learn something.
How: since you can see all the concepts together, I think you’ll notice the value.
You can see the example running at https://jsfiddle.net/swmrmgur/2/ and check the commented code down bellow.
Advanced toolbox & conclusion
I hope you might see the benefits you can have from using one or other technique from functional programming but for sure there are other benefits not shown here, I strongly recommend you to read the INCREDIBLE free book (gitbook) “Professor Frisby’s Mostly Adequate Guide to Functional Programming”, in fact, most of the ideas and examples here are from it.
There are advanced techniques to deal with data mutation with less pain, to handle errors and exceptions without try and catch and more abstractions that can help you and you can read them on the book.
And don’t use the handcrafted curry and compose built here (they’re far from production-ready), instead use a library like Ramda, which provides many basic functions like: map, filter and other all of them already curried, or lodash-fp.
Yeah, there no monado here. A special thank to Daniel Martins and Juarez Bochi, they helped a lot.